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Land and Weather

Discovering the geography of Canada

As a vast country that spans across 6 time zones, Canada has a large land mass. With a total land area of about 9,984,670 square kilometres, it is the largest country in North America and the second largest in the world after Russia. The longest stretch of distance in Canada is of 4,634 kilometres and this stretches from the northern tip of Nunavut to the southern tip of Ontario. If you measure the distance from East to West, it’s about 5,514 kilometres from the eastern tip of Newfoundland and Labrador to the western tip of the Yukon Territory.

Canada’s size can be grasped if we travel the distances. If you board a bus from Halifax, Nova Scotia and travel to Vancouver on the West Coast, it will take you seven days. If flying, the same distance will take you seven hours. With 6 different time zones, Canada astonishes you at first glance. The Newfoundland, Atlantic, Eastern, Central, The Mountain Time and Pacific Time are the time zones of Canada.

Canadian provinces and territories are immense. The entire country is divided into 10 provinces and 3 territories. There are 5 regions that extend from West to East. The East is characterised as the Atlantic region and includes the provinces of Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island. The Central region includes the provinces of Quebec and Ontario, while the Prairies include Manitoba, Saskatchewan and parts of Alberta. The Western region of Canada includes Alberta and British Columbia. The Northern regions of Canada include Nunavut, Yukon and the Northwest Territories.

All of these regions have their own house of representatives in the Parliament. These regions are governed by provincial and municipal governments and they share a certain degree of autonomy from the federal government.

Canada’s varied topography is home to many rare animal species. Our rich wildlife and forests are well known across the world. Canada is home to more than 71,500 species of plant and animals. Its rich water sources are roughly 7 per cent of the entire world’s fresh water supply. The country also has the longest coastline in the world.

Learn more about:

  • Seasons
  • Typical features of seasons
  • Winter tips

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